The juice of the fruit, better known as coconut water, has been reported to contain similar electrolytes as the human body, and therefore has potential applications as a sport drink for athletes and for active people. creolisch : —-. On fertile soil, a tall coconut palm tree can yield up to 75 fruits per year, but more often yields less than 30. The root system of coconut is fibrous. Its uses are so numerous and, as every part of the coconut palm is of some use, the coconut palm has been described as ‘one of Nature's greatest gifts to man’ (Burkill, 1966). The cells continue to be formed on the endocarp surface resulting in translucent jelly-like endosperm and then white solid endosperm or kernel at 11 months. The inflorescence develops within a strong, tough pointed double sheath called spathe. Coconut inflorescences are generated at the age of about 2–4 years in the dwarf type or 5–7 years in the tall type. The coconut palm is tall and stately in appearance and attains a height of about 15–30 m when fully mature. Indonesia, Philippines, India, and Sri Lanka are the major coconut-producing countries. [...] (mesocarp) of the coco nut (Cocos nucifera) fro m the coconut. Oceania also had higher growth rates in production and yield levels than all other regions, while Africa had the greatest growth rate in the area of coconuts harvested than that for Asia and the Americas (Fig. Figure 7.3. In the Caribbean, the total production of coconuts averaged just under 75,000 tons, coconuts being the second most produced commodity after sugarcane in Jamaica, which averages about 240,000 tons (FAOSTAT, 2014). Es könnte ja noch etwas leckeres versteckt sein, oder ist es etwa die Suche nach dem leckeren Kokoswasser, Bild 6: Häufig bieten kleine Obsthändler ihre ständig frische Ware an  den Straßenrändern an und die Königskokosnuss fehlt dabei selten im Sortiment der schmackhaften exotischen Früchte. Familie : Arecaceae – Palmengewächse Jerard, ... T.P. Coconuts are generally classified into two general types: tall and dwarf. B.A. Humans have also played a major role in dispersal, because of its ability to provide many different resources such as food and water. In addition to the many other uses to which both the tree and the fruit can be put, the major and growing demand for coconut comes from the use of the juice within the fruit for drinking. The scientific reason Cocos nucifera … Cocos nucifera, commonly called coconut or coconut palm, is a tall tree that is native to tropical islands in the western Pacific. In the Hawaiian Islands, the coconut is regarded as a Polynesian introduction, first brought to the islands by early Polynesian voyagers from their homelands in Oceania. In terms of production of coconuts, the Asian region dominated with an 83% market share (FAOSTAT, 2014); other regions included the Americas (8.7%), Oceania (4.8%), and Africa (3.4%). It is the only accepted species in the genus Cocos.The term coconut can refer to the entire coconut palm, the seed or the fruit, which is not a botanical nut. Figure 7.5. It has pinnate leaves 4–6 m long, the leaflets 60–90 cm long; old leaves break away cleanly, leaving the trunk smooth. Diese und andere Eigenschaften finden Sie … Cocos nucifera is a large palm, growing up to 30 m (100 ft) tall, with pinnate leaves 4–6 m (13–20 ft) long, and pinnae 60–90 cm (2–3 ft) long; old leaves break away cleanly, leaving the trunk smooth. Diagnostic features. Each leaf measures 5–6 m in length and weighs 10–15 kg. It is claimed that they evolved to disperse significant distances via marine currents. Somatic Embryo Zygotic Embryo Coconut Palm Cocos Nucifera Flower Meristem ... (Cocos nucifera L.) In: Int Congr plant tiss and cell culture. The stem lacks bark, cambium, and with no secondary growth features, volume once formed remains unaltered. Grown in more than 80 countries, it is a life-sustaining species in fragile coastal and island ecosystems. Botanisch ist die Königskokospalme auch eine echte Kokosnusspalme – Cocos nucifera. Growth Habit: Tree. Coconut Palm1 Edward F. Gilman and Dennis G. Watson2 INTRODUCTION The Coconut Palm is one of man’s most useful plants (Fig. They have smaller kernels but produce more bunches per year, and are more resistant to lethal yellowing disease caused by a phytoplasma as compared to the tall cultivars (Ohler, 1984; de Taffin, 1998). Coconut production share (A) and growth rate by region (B). Reference page. The coconut fruit has two basic varieties according to the type of palm tree bearing the fruit. The fruits of the palm mature in 12 months. 2014 Trade Data on exports of nondesiccated coconut products. The major insect pests include the rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros (Linnaeus)), the palm weevils (Rhynchophorus spp. The tall variety of coconut is slow growing. Figure 7.7. Normally, the resident thioesterase exhibited increased specificity for long-chain fatty acyl groups, thus accounting for the increased proportion of oleic acid in regular canola oil. Vasil IK (ed) Cell culture and somatic genetics of plants. Auf dem afrikanischen Festland habe ich diese Art bisher nicht beobachten können, aber auf den Seychellen im Indischen Ozean fand ich sie zahlreich auf den Inseln Praslin und La Digue. The coconut (Cocos nucifera) grows on the coconut palm, which is common in tropical areas throughout the world. Bei einer T… It has generally been accepted that the coconut originated in the Indian–Indonesia region and float-distributed itself around the world by riding ocean currents. insectfree.ch. In the coastal areas of the tropics and subtropics where it is grown, it requires a hot, moist climate and deep alluvial or loamy soil, thriving especially near the seaboard, but also considerable distance inland, provided climatic conditions and … Hybrids between the two groups are also commercially grown with higher yield and better quality nuts than their parents (Ohler, 1984). A new leaf appears in the crown every 3 or 4 weeks in a healthy palm. 2018. 7.7B). Approximately 6–8 months after fertilization, the endosperm begins to develop as a liquid composed of free nuclei and some cells. Cocos nucifera (Coconut Palm) Botanical Description Flower Image Foliage Leaf Arrangement: Spiral Leaf Venation: Parallel Leaf Persistance: Evergreen Leaf Type: Odd Pinnately compund Leaf Blade: Over 80 cm Leaf Shape: Linear Leaf Margins: Entire Leaf Textures: Glossy, Coarse Leaf Scent: No Fragance Color(growing season): Green, Yellow Color(changing season): Green, Yellow Fruit-bearing starts after six years. The white coconut ‘meat,’ which can be eaten either fresh or desiccated, is actually part of the endosperm (storage tissue) of the seed. 7.6A–B, respectively. Cocos nucifera) stammt ursprünglich aus den feuchtwarmen Tropengebieten, wo sie überwiegend an den Küsten der Meere gedeiht. Despite its solo status in this monotypic genus, it has countless variations, but is always easily identified by everyone the world over as the Coconut Palm. Coconut, cocus nucifera, is a monoecious large palm of about 30 m tall with long pinnate leaves that break away cleanly leaving the unbranched trunk smooth. The other is a soft eye having the embryo located underneath. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is a perennial plant that bears fruit continuously for up to 60–70 years, 12–13 times a year, yielding between 30 and 75 fruits per year. Most of the crop, up to 80%, is for local consumption while the remaining 20% goes to the international market. Description: Cocos nucifera is a large palm, growing up to 30m (98 ft) tall, with pinnate leaves 4–6m (13–20 ft) long, and pinnae 60–90 cm (23-35 inch) long; old leaves break away cleanly, leaving the trunk smooth. In this study, B. napus transgenic lines coexpressing the two cDNAs produced over 65% lauric acid with some molecular species of TAG present as trilaurin. J. Siriphanich, ... S. Tongchitpakdee, in Postharvest Biology and Technology of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits: Cocona to Mango, 2011. It is particularly important in the low islands of the Pacific where, in the absence of land-based natural re-sources, it provides almost all the necessities of life—food, drink, oil, medicine, fiber, timber, thatch, mats, fuel, and domestic utensils. Flowering Season: Year-round Coconut is one of the few major crop species that has no closely related wild relatives. The Coconut Palm is a large palm, growing to 30 m tall. 7.4B). All-natural coconut water is now being packaged and sold in various markets as a perishable beverage (Fig. These are the “tall” and “dwarf” coconut trees. The tall form of coconut is best suited to oil production, having more oil in the kernel and larger fruit than the dwarf form, which produces high-quality drinking nuts (Foale and Roebeling, 2006). Specimens have been collected from the sea as far north as Norway (but it is not known where they entered the water). Coconut fruit in the wild is light, buoyant and highly water resistant. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Duration: Perennial, Evergreen. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Abstract: The final yield of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is determined by early fruit set. Bild 1: Königskokospalme – Cocos nucifera eine Zuchtform der eigentlichen Kokospalme, Bild 2: Adulte Pflanzen können reichhaltige Erträge bringen, Bild 3: Die leuchtend gelben Kokosnussfrüchte der Königskokospalme geben nicht nur ein sehr schmackhaftes und gesundes Erfrischungsgetränk, sie sind auch für das Auge eine schöne farbliche Erscheinung im satten Grün der Kokospalmenkrone, Bild 4: Einzelne Frucht der Königskokospalme, Bild 5: Neugierig schaut hier ein Seychellen Skink in eine leere Königskokosnuss. The plant comes in two main varieties: tall and dwarf (Pradeepkumar et al., 2008), as well as hybrid varieties, each of which has different characteristics, making them desirable in different circumstances. Coconut ‘milk,’ which is found in the unripe nut and is drunk or used in cooking, is the liquid form of the endosperm, which solidifies as the fruit ripens. The tree is unparalleled in utilisation of its each and every part for some economic purpose or other. Cocos nucifera; Media in category "Cocos nucifera" The following 200 files are in this category, out of 1,875 total. The trees are tall, reaching up to 30 m in height, with a slender, often curved trunk. 7.5A–B). There are many reviews and articles covering biotechnology applications in coconut palm [2–5]. Similarly, the fibrous roots never expand in … 7.3). Die Königskokospalme ist eine Zuchtform der bekannten Kokospalme Cocos nucifera. The coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) is found throughout the tropics, where it is interwoven into the lives of the local people. Sie sagt nichts über dessen tatsächliche Wirkung und Hautverträglichkeit aus. Field: This is perhaps the most well-known palm species. McVetty, ... Randall J. Weselake, in Industrial Oil Crops, 2016. 7.7A). The term coconut can refer to the whole coconut palm or the seed, or the fruit, which, botanically, is a drupe, not a nut. It has been traditionally used for its oil, and varied products from endosperm, nut water, tender nut water, husk, fibre and leaves. The tiny embryo is about the size of a pea seed under the soft eye (Cutter et al., 1952; Child, 1974; Janick and Paull, 2008). französisch: —-,  swahili: Mnazi, Two of the eyes are lignified. Figure 7.2. The fruit of the coconut is a fibrous drupe. Coconut is the “tree of life” as it plays a vital role, in addition to giving food, drink and shelter, in the economies of many small island countries in the Caribbean, Indian, and Pacific Oceans. The tall tree such as the Sri Lanka or West African tall can grow up to 25–30 m while the dwarf, such as the Malayan dwarf typically does not exceed 4–8 m in height. In this chapter update, we review the genomics work on coconut palm in depth. Coconut milk or crea… It is an economically important plant in the family and is used as both an ornamental and a food crop. There are only single, or a few, female flowers on a branch close to the base and many smaller male flowers above. Art: Cocos nucifera. deutsch : Königskokospalme, englisch: The King Coconut Palm, französisch: —-, swahili: Mnazi, afrikaans: —-. The palm produces an average of about 12 leaves annually. The plantations are usually located in the lowlands just above beach level. . Die Besonderheit dieser “königlichen” Kokosnuss, die schon seit vielen hundert Jahren auf Sri Lanka gezüchtet wird, ist nicht ihr geringer Anteil an Fruchtfleisch, sondern die Möglichkeit sie als wertvolle Trinkquelle zu nutzen. Fruit-bearing starts after six years. The coconut has spread across much of the tropics, probably aided in many cases by seafaring people. The size of the de-husked nut is about 10 cm in diameter and it weighs about 0.5 kg on average (Child, 1974; Grimwood, 1975; Ohler, 1984). Swarnam, in Biodiversity and Climate Change Adaptation in Tropical Islands, 2008. Auffallend bei dieser Spezies sind die leuchtend gelb bis fast orange gefärbten Kokosnüsse und im Gegensatz zu der uns bekannten Art bleibt die Königskokospalme auch etwas niedriger im Wuchs. Kokosnusspalme (lat. An adult palm usually carries 30–40 paripinnate leaves in its crown. Der geringe Anteil an Fruchtfleisch ist auch nicht so hart und eher fast schon gelatineartig bei einer Stärke von nur wenigen Millimetern. This part yields copra oil and an opalescent liquid coconut water, and fills three quarters of the large central cavity. People in more than 93 countries thrive on coconut cultivation and related industries. 2014 Trade Data on desiccated coconut exports globally. Packaged coconut water products marketed in developing countries. Scientific Name: Cocos nucifera. The endocarp is lignified and about 3–6 mm thick and turns brown when mature. Linnaeus, C. 1753. Dort erreicht sie Wuchshöhen bis zu 30 m. Hierzulande ist dies nicht möglich: Kokospalmen werden ausschließlich als Zimmerpflanzen kultiviert. Middle-aged Coconut Palm. References []. The heavy crown of long flowing fronds and gently curved trunks lend a tropical effect to any landscape setting in which they can grow. Diese Website verwendet Cookies. The fruit is an important oilseed source, especially in many developing countries, such as the Philippines, Sri Lanka, India, Malaysia, parts of West Africa, and Latin America and the Caribbean. On very fertile land, a tall coconut palm tree can yield up to 75 fruits per year, but more often yields less than 30, mainly due to … Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., is the only species in Cocos genus, within Aracaceae family, Cocoeae order. Figure 7.6. Leaves : Leaves forming a crown on the top, very large, pinnate, leaflets many linear-lanceolate. Coconut fiber is obtained from the fibrous husk. The top five coconut exporting and importing countries in 2013 are shown in Fig. Cocos Nucifera. Coconut, Cocos nucifera Linnaeus, (family Palmae) is a pantropical plant whose centre of origin is uncertain. Since the fruit is monospermous, it encloses a single seed. Jalani, ... S.C. Cheah, in Encyclopedia of Applied Plant Sciences, 2003. This plant is more commonly known as the coconut palm and provides one of the most widely used cooking ingredients in the world. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. When the spathe is fully grown, the entire structure, collectively called “spadix,” is about 1–1.2 m in length and 14–16 cm in diameter. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is an important multipurpose perennial crop of the tropics. However, it can also be argued that the placement of the vulnerable eye of the nut (down when floating) and the site of the coir ‘cushion’ are better positioned to ensure that the water-filled nut does not fracture when dropping on rocky ground, rather than for flotation. Trivialname. China, the USA, Thailand, the United Arab Emirates, and the European Union were the major coconut importing countries in 2013 ranging from 32,000 to 188,000 tons. Cocos nucifera flower (Coconut Flower ) . Auffallend bei dieser Spezies sind die leuchtend gelb bis fast orange gefärbten Kokosnüsse und im Gegensatz zu der uns bekannten Art bleibt die Königskokospalme auch etwas niedriger im Wuchs. J. Female flowers which develop normally become very large, ranging from 0.5 to more than 2.5 kg. Coconuts in various stages of maturity on a tree. There are three eyes (see Plate III d), one on each carpel at the stem end. Climatic and nutritional conditions during the flowering stage affect the relationship between the number of female flowers and ripe fruits obtained, or the fruit set rate. As the fruit matures, the weights of the water and the solid endosperm (kernel) range between 21–449 g and 98–553 g, respectively (de Taffin, 1998). CAS Number: 8001-31-8 EINECS/ELINCS No: 232-282-8 COSING REF No: 75444 Chem/IUPAC Name: Cocos Nucifera Oil is the fixed oil obtained by expression of the kernels of the seeds of the Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., Palmaceae Coconut belongs to the monotypic genus Cocos, under the subtribe Butiinae; and tribe Cocoeae, subfamily Arecoideae. A mature fruit is about 1–2 kg in weight, a significant reduction from 3–4 kg at its maximum weight at around 9 months, 15–20 cm in diameter and 20–30 cm long, with a variation of fruit shapes, from round to elongated but mostly ovoid to oblong and triangular fruit (see Plate III a in the colour section between pages 274 and 275). The dwarf variety bears fruit 1–2 years earlier, but gains a height of less than half that of the tall variety. McVetty, ... Randall J. Weselake, in, Coconut Biodiversity – Nature’s Gift to the Tropical Islands, Biodiversity and Climate Change Adaptation in Tropical Islands, J. Siriphanich, ... S. Tongchitpakdee, in, Postharvest Biology and Technology of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits: Cocona to Mango, Case study: application of appropriate technologies to improve the quality and safety of coconut water, Food Safety and Quality Systems in Developing Countries, Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition (Third Edition). This limitation was partially overcome in a follow-up study where a coconut LPAAT exhibiting enhanced preference for lauryl-CoA, was coexpressed in developing B. napus seed with the California bay laurel acyl-ACP thioesterase (Knutzon et al., 1999). Auf den Inseln Praslin und  La Digue,  Seychellen 2013/14. This graceful, solitary palm has coconuts. In an early genetic engineering success, B. napus was engineered to produce oil with about 50% lauric acid through transformation with a cDNA encoding a lauryl-ACP thioesterase from the California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica) (Voelker et al., 1996). A brown testa surrounds the seed, which encloses a white layer of meat about 1–2 cm thick. Cocos nucifera, the coconut palm, is a long-lived palm with some varieties growing up to 100 years. Flower Color: Yellowish green, Creamy yellow. About Cocos nucifera Plant : Habit : A handsome, tall palm. The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera L., native of the humid tropics, is a versatile, multipurpose palm with slender unbranched stem crowned with a cluster of long green pinnate leaves producing fruit bunches borne on the leaf axils. Gray, in Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition (Third Edition), 2013. It’s not entirely clear where the coconut palm first originates from but it is now one of the most widely-recognised plants in the world. It is also called ‘The tree of wealth’ or ‘The tree of life’ in other parts of the world. The chromosome number is of 2n = 32 (Teulat et al., 2000). For this very reason Cocos nucifera flower and others Areca catechu flower find a special significance in rituals and auspicious functions. The tall cultivars are usually grown for mature coconut, comprising ‘Bali’ (Indonesia), ‘Laguna’ (Philippines), ‘Tahiti’ (Tahiti), ‘West African Tall’ (Ivory Coast), etc. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is known as ‘Kalpa Vriksha’ in the ancient Indian literatures, which means ‘tree that provides all the necessities of life’. It readily establishes itself on sandy beaches upon being washed ashore. The embryo is lodged in the meat under one of the three germinating pores of the nut. This includes several economically important plants such as Cocos nucifera (coconut), Elaeis guineensis (African oil palm), Attalea cohune (babacu), Arecanut (Areca catechu) and Bactris gasipaes (peach palm). Pollination occurs with the assistance of insects attracted by nectar in newly opened male flowers (Ohler, 1984). Copyright © 2020 | WordPress Theme von MH Themes. The fruit is a drupe comprised of three layers: the exocarp, mesocarp (coconut husk), and the endocarp. Die Kokospalme bzw. The tree produces fruits (Fig. Coconut palm is an important multipurpose tropical tree of the humid tropics that supports millions of people in coastal and island ecosystems for their livelihood. Coconut palms are long-lived perennials that may continue to bear fruit for many decades given good conditions (Thampan 1975). ; Links []. In a year a coconut tree generally produces 12–20 inflorescences. The familiar hard shell of the coconut is the endocarp, or inner layer, of the mature ovary of the fruit, and within the shell is the actual seed, covered with a thin brown seed coat. Coconuts are buoyant and able to float in sea currents for long distances while remaining viable and able to germinate upon arrival. Govaerts, R. et al. Common Names: Coconut Palm, Niu. Die ursprüngliche Heimat der Königskokosnuss lag in Sri Lanka, von wo sie auch ihren Weg als Kultur- und Nutzpflanze ihrem Weg durch die tropischen Gebiete von Südostasien und den Ländern des Indopazifiks ging. Cocos nucifera Figure 1. Als Trinkkokosnuss gezüchtet ist sie ein gesundes, erfrischendes, durstlöschendes, kalorienarmes und isoterisches Getränk. afrikaans: —-. Gattung : Cocos Cocos nucifera. V. Arunachalam, in Genomics of Cultivated Palms, 2012. 7.1), which grows on trees of varying heights depending on the variety of coconut (Fig. The cross section of the fruit from the outer to the inner layer shows a smooth, waxy diversely colored yellow, orange, green, brown or reddish-brown epidermis, a fibrous mesocarp or husk, and a ligneous, blackish and very hard endocarp. A. Gordon, J. Jackson, in Food Safety and Quality Systems in Developing Countries, 2017. Figure 9.1. Academic Press 1: 74–81 Google Scholar . Species Plantarum.Tomus II: 1188. Fruits from dwarf cultivars are commonly smaller than fruits from tall cultivars. Again, the Netherlands, a nonproducing country, is a significant reexporter of coconut products and is among the country with the fastest export growth rate, along with Hong Kong (Fig. creolisch : —-, Vorkommen The inflorescence bears 30–35 flower-bearing spikelets densely set with male flowers. In den tropischen Regionen von Südostasien, aber auch in Südamerika und Afrika gedeihen die prächtigen Kokospalmen besonders gut. Die Königskokospalme ist eine Zuchtform der bekannten Kokospalme Cocos nucifera. In 2013, Indonesia, Vietnam, India, Malaysia, and Thailand were the major coconut exporting countries in the world, with exports ranging from 50,000 to 230,000 tons. Coconut has many uses, including providing food and oil for millions and ornamental aesthetics (Rieger, 2006). The four southern states Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh are the major coconut flower producing states in India . 7.3). B.S. The plant is widely used for ornamental purposes in tourist resorts around the world; its leaves are used for weaving, its shell for making jewelry and charcoal and its husk for making coir, mats, and brooms, among other things. The coconut palm Cocos nucifera belongs to the palm family, one of the largest in the monocotyledon group. tis-gdv.de. The top five coconut producing countries were Indonesia as the major producer (18 million tons), followed by the Philippines (15 million tons), India (11 million tons), Brazil (4 million tons), and Sri Lanka (2 million tons). Sie ist etwas dünnschaliger und hat einen hohen Anteil an Kokosnusswasser. The water in the fruit is also fermented to produce vinegar and wine and the dried flesh of the fruit, when ground and squeezed, provides “coconut milk” which is used in a variety of traditional culinary applications, the remaining ground coconut being used for a range of sweet delicacies, including macaroons. Ordnung: Arecales – Palmenartige Familie: Arecaceae – Palmengewächse Gattung : Cocos Art: Cocos nucifera. The female flowers are found at the base of the spikelet, and each spikelet may carry one or a few female flowers (Banzon and Velasco, 1982). Leaf emergence to shedding takes about 2.5–3 years. Generally coconut is classified into dwarf and tall groups. The native origin of the palm is uncertain, as the nuts were easily dispersed between both islands and continents by ocean currents and by early explorers. The exocarp, or the epidermis, is about 0.1 mm thick covering the fibrous mesocarp, or coir, which is about 1–5 cm thick at the circumference (see Plate III b and c). Für das zarte Gefühl rundum gepflegter Hände: Die vegane Balea Handcreme Cocos & Lotusblüte mit Cocosöl und Lotusblüten-Extrakt pflegt trockene Hände sanft. Aus dem getrockneten Fruchtfleisch (Kopra) eben dieser Kokosnüsse wird Cocos Nucifera (Coconut) Oil gewonnen, das aufgrund seiner vielen positiven Eigenschaften immer mehr im Kommen ist. From: Industrial Crops and Products, 2015, Laura J. Pham, in Industrial Oil Crops, 2016. The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera, is a member of the family Arecaceae (palm family). coconut ECOLOGY C. nucifera is unknown in the wild state. It is known as the tree of life for all of its plant parts has a wide range of uses. und das Spray erhält eine dezent-erfrischende Duftnote. Hawaii Native Status: Introduced. Dwarf cultivars are considered low in productivity, less tolerant to poor conditions. It is a diploid species (2n=2x=32) with a large genome size of 2.15 Gb nucleotide pairs [1]. Abstr, Univ Minnesota, p 193 Google Scholar. The trees are tall, reaching up to 30 m in height, with a slender, often curved trunk. Also of note is that the Netherlands, Belgium and, to a lesser extent, Germany are significant exporters of desiccated coconuts. Botanisch ist die Königskokospalme auch eine echte Kokosnusspalme – Cocos nucifera. 9.1) 6–10 years after planting, and remains productive even after 80–120 years. Coconut genomics work is of recent origin, with research done on cloning of copia-like element [6] in 1992, acyl transferase gene [7] in 1995, and RAPD marker-aided diversity assessment in coconut germplasm of the Pacific Islands [8] in 1997. The coconut palm is native to the tropical islands of the West Pacific and requires hot, humid conditions to grow. The beautiful, slender tree consists of a fasciculate root system containing thousands of roots which grow throughout the palm’s life span. 7.2), is a major source of revenue for many farmers and countries in the Far East, in particular, where it is used in variety of ways and also exported to other countries around the world. deutsch : Königskokospalme, englisch: The King Coconut Palm, Sie werden unter anderem in Indien, Indonesien, auf den Philippinen, in Sri Lanka und in Thailand angebaut und bringen die bekannten Kokosnüsse hervor. The inflorescence and roots of coconut tree were used for the treatment of various health problems in all palm-growing countries of the world. Cocos nucifera is one of the most adaptable products which possess several protein fractions such as albumins, globulins, prolamines, glutelins 1 and 2 which were found and reported. Inflorescence : Spadix; Flowers : Flowers are in large spadix which is androgynous with numerous, small male flowers, above and a few, globular larger female flowers, below, spathe boat-shaped, splitting above. This naturalized Polynesian canoe plant is originally native to Malesia and Australasia. Die Besonderheit dieser “königlichen” Kokosnuss, die schon seit vielen hundert Jahren auf Sri Lanka gezüchtet wird, ist nicht ihr geringer Anteil an Fruchtfleisch, sondern die Möglichkeit sie als wertvolle Trinkquelle zu nutzen. They have been found in the Caribbean and the Atlantic coasts of Africa and South America for less than 500 years (the Caribbean native inhabitants do not have a dialect term for them, but use the Portuguese name), but evidence of their presence on the Pacific coast of South America antedates Christopher Columbus’s arrival in the Americas. The male flowers number about 250–300 per spikelet. 1). Coconut is an important subsistence crop of the humid tropical zones and is a life-supporting species in fragile island and coastal ecosystems. During the period 2000–13, the Oceania region showed the greatest increase in production, with growth rates of 4.6%; this was followed by Asia at 1.5%, the Americas by 1.1%, and Africa by 0.7% (FAOSTAT, 2014). Fruit development from anthesis to maturity takes approximately 12 months, varying with coconut type and cultivar. Peter B.E. 7.4A), although a growing number of processors are finding various ways to extend the shelf life and make the product more shelf stable (Fig. The coconut meat may be dried to produce copra, which is pressed to remove the coconut oil used widely as a food oil and in soap and cosmetic manufacture. The main coconut producing countries are the Philippines, Indonesia, India, Papua New Guinea and the Pacific Islands. Wenn Sie die Website weiter nutzen, gehen wir von Ihrem Einverständnis aus. Desiccated coconut is in high demand the world over, with more than US $800 million in global exports led by the Philippines, with Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam showing significant export growth in the last few years (Fig. Ordnung: Arecales – Palmenartige Positional analysis of fatty acyl groups in the TAGs of these transgenic lines, however, revealed very little accumulation of lauric acid at the sn-2 position, likely due to a limitation in the specificity of the indigenous LPAAT which catalyzes the acylation of the sn-2 position of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to generate PA in the G3P pathway leading to TAG (Snyder et al., 2009). Tock Hing Chua, in World Crop Pests, 1997. The seed is edible - eaten raw, used in cooked dishes, or dried then shredded as flavouring. Is edible - eaten raw, used in cooked dishes, or dried then shredded as flavouring an... Data on exports of nondesiccated coconut Products Digue, Seychellen 2013/14 the endosperm begins to as..., Philippines, Indonesia, India, Papua new Guinea and the Pacific islands reviews and covering. Fruits of the humid tropical zones and is used as both an ornamental and a food crop somatic of. Insect Pests include the rhinoceros beetle ( Oryctes rhinoceros ( Linnaeus ) ) one... Ocean currents einer Stärke von nur wenigen Millimetern in category `` Cocos nucifera besonders... Single seed nut ( Fig providing food and Oil for millions and ornamental aesthetics ( Rieger, 2006.. Located in the wild is light, buoyant and highly water resistant Tongchitpakdee, in food Safety quality... Cell culture and somatic genetics of plants the heavy crown of long flowing fronds and gently curved trunks a! The form of a nut ( Cocos nucifera Linnaeus, ( family Palmae ) Hampson ) which... Tall type were used for the treatment of various health problems in all palm-growing countries the... Very large, pinnate, leaflets many linear-lanceolate break away cleanly, leaving the trunk smooth chromosome is... Water ) cm in diameter and 30 cm long ; old leaves break away cleanly cocos nucifera flower leaving trunk! With coconut type and cultivar [... ] palm, is for local consumption the. 5–6 m in length and weighs 10–15 kg cleanly, leaving the trunk smooth are grown in more 2.5. And others Areca catechu flower find a special significance in rituals and auspicious functions (. They evolved to disperse significant distances via marine currents are buoyant and highly water resistant where they the... Attains a height of about 15–30 m when fully mature quality Systems in Developing countries 2017! Weeks in a year a coconut tree generally produces 12–20 inflorescences heavy crown of flowing. And Dennis G. Watson2 INTRODUCTION the coconut palm, which is characteristically unbranched slower! Goes to the base and many smaller male flowers per inflorescence to tropical islands of the largest in the.... 12 months than 93 countries thrive on coconut palm in depth continuing you agree to the palm ’ life. The tropics m when fully mature are in this category contains only the following page gepflegter:. 26°N and 26°S except for the treatment of various health problems in all palm-growing countries the..., including providing food and water a member of the few major crop species that has closely... Crop, up to 80 %, is a drupe comprised of cocos nucifera flower layers: the King palm! S.C. Cheah, in world crop Pests, 1997 develop into fruit appear in further... Of desiccated coconuts composed of free nuclei and some cells besonders gut grows on the top very! The east and West coasts of Africa and central and South America widely used cooking ingredients the. Wirkung und Hautverträglichkeit aus the embryo is lodged in the world more commonly known as the coconut palm is of... It has generally been accepted that the coconut palm [ 2–5 ] strong, tough pointed double called! Bears fruit 1–2 years earlier, but gains a height of less than half that of female... Long ; old leaves break away cleanly, leaving the trunk, which grows on the,! Generally there are many reviews and articles covering biotechnology applications in coconut palm, is a life-sustaining species in genus... Size of 2.15 Gb nucleotide pairs [ 1 ] trunk, which belongs to the use cookies! Hart und eher fast schon gelatineartig bei einer Stärke von nur wenigen Millimetern the two groups are commercially! Stem lacks bark, cambium, and the endocarp roots of coconut ( Cocos ''! Perennial crop of the coconut fruit has two basic varieties according to the type of palm tree bearing the is. Systems in Developing countries, 2017 often curved trunk commonly smaller than from! Develop into fruit appear in rows further up the stem end carries 30–40 paripinnate leaves its! A fibrous drupe height of about 15–30 m when fully mature as food and.... Use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads all of its parts! F. Gilman and Dennis G. Watson2 INTRODUCTION the coconut palm is tall and in. Ist sie ein gesundes, erfrischendes, durstlöschendes, kalorienarmes und isoterisches Getränk the type of palm tree bearing fruit. ( ed ) Cell culture and somatic genetics of plants ) is an important subsistence of! Coconut ECOLOGY C. nucifera is unknown in the Indian–Indonesia region and float-distributed itself around the world by... Stem from the rows of male flowers riding ocean currents conditions ( Thampan 1975.. Formed remains unaltered special significance in rituals and auspicious functions or ‘ the tree of ’! Many smaller male flowers ( Ohler, 1984 ) ein gesundes, erfrischendes, durstlöschendes kalorienarmes... Islands, 2008 ( 1984 ) endocarp is lignified and about 3–6 mm thick and turns brown mature. In diameter and 30 cm long ; old leaves break away cleanly, the! By seafaring people female flowers that develop into fruit appear in rows further the. As Norway ( but it is a fibrous drupe Hände: die vegane Balea Handcreme &. In various markets as a liquid composed of free nuclei and some cells new leaf in... 5–6 m in height, with a large genome size of 2.15 Gb nucleotide [! Stages of maturity on a tree the plantations are usually located in the lowlands just beach. Rachilla ) of the female flowers a healthy palm: Cocona to Mango,.... They can grow about 12 leaves annually its plant parts has a wide range of.!, very large, pinnate, leaflets many linear-lanceolate sie ist etwas dünnschaliger und hat einen Anteil! Oryctes rhinoceros ( Linnaeus ) ), and fills three quarters of the crop, to. Have been collected from the sea as far north as Norway ( but it is also called the. Covering biotechnology applications in coconut palm is native to tropical islands in the meat under one of the central... Life-Sustaining species in Cocos genus, within Aracaceae family, one on each carpel the! Ornamental aesthetics ( Rieger, 2006 ) the coco nut ( Cocos nucifera to! Of insects attracted by nectar in newly opened male flowers per inflorescence Oil Crops, 2016 fro the. Long ; old leaves break away cleanly, leaving the trunk smooth embryo located.! On exports of nondesiccated coconut Products nucifera L., is for local consumption while the remaining %... Südostasien, aber auch in Südamerika und Afrika gedeihen die prächtigen Kokospalmen besonders gut crop, up to 30 in! Shredded as flavouring in a year a coconut tree were used for the interiors of Africa and central South... Fertilization, the coconut palm in depth, 2015, Laura J. Pham, in Biodiversity and Climate Adaptation! Generally been accepted that the coconut originated in the wild is light, buoyant and highly water resistant Habit! Leaves tops the trunk smooth countries thrive on coconut cocos nucifera flower and related industries the largest in the is! May continue to bear fruit for many decades given good conditions ( Thampan 1975 ) B.V. its. King coconut palm, französisch: —-, swahili: Mnazi, afrikaans: —- 100 years 2014 Data. Cm thick the subtribe Butiinae ; and tribe Cocoeae, subfamily Arecoideae generally 12–20! People in more than 2.5 kg multipurpose perennial crop of the three germinating pores the! Useful plants ( Fig, Germany are significant exporters of desiccated coconuts ) which. Others Areca catechu flower find a special cocos nucifera flower in rituals and auspicious functions and! Are three eyes ( see Plate III d ), one of crop. Grows on trees of varying heights depending on the top, very large, ranging from 0.5 to more 2.5. And yellow to brown when mature from 0.5 to more than 93 thrive... Many reviews and articles covering biotechnology applications in coconut palm, französisch: —- Cocos L.! Fruits are up to 80 %, is the only species in fragile island and coastal.... The seed is edible - eaten raw, used in cooked dishes, or a few, female.... In diameter and 30 cm long ; old leaves break away cleanly, leaving the smooth! Year a coconut tree generally produces 12–20 cocos nucifera flower möglich: Kokospalmen werden ausschließlich als Zimmerpflanzen kultiviert:! Von Südostasien, aber auch in Südamerika und Afrika gedeihen die prächtigen Kokospalmen besonders gut and about 3–6 mm and! Which is characteristically unbranched, 2015, Laura J. Pham, in Encyclopedia of Applied plant Sciences,.. And is a long-lived palm with some varieties growing up to 100 years significant exporters of desiccated coconuts das! Many reviews and articles covering biotechnology applications in coconut palm is one of man ’ s life.! Planting, and Sri Lanka are the major insect Pests include the beetle. And island ecosystems Hierzulande ist dies nicht möglich: Kokospalmen werden ausschließlich als Zimmerpflanzen kultiviert and of! Rows of male flowers die prächtigen Kokospalmen besonders gut... S.C. Cheah, in Industrial Oil Crops,.. Ist sie ein gesundes, erfrischendes, durstlöschendes, kalorienarmes und isoterisches Getränk any landscape setting in they., but gains a height of about 12 leaves annually “ dwarf ” coconut trees, englisch the... Sie ein gesundes, erfrischendes, durstlöschendes, kalorienarmes und isoterisches Getränk are tall, up.,... S. Tongchitpakdee, in Industrial Oil Crops, 2016 life span, 1997 ) stammt aus., reaching up to 30 m in height, with a large genome size of Gb! The Philippines, India, Papua new Guinea and the diaspidid, Aspidiotus destructor Signoret französisch:,... Gb nucleotide pairs [ 1 ] and growth rate by region ( B....